This section does not cite any sources.
The existence of the isthmus affected the dispersal of people, agriculture and technology throughout the American continent from the appearance of the first hunters and collectors to the era of villages and cities.
Later central Panama was home to some of the first pottery -making in the Americas, for example the cultures at Monagrillowhich date back to — BC. These evolved into significant populations best known through their spectacular burials dating to c. The monumental monolithic sculptures at the Barriles Chiriqui site are also important traces of these ancient isthmian cultures.
The largest group were the Cueva whose specific language affiliation is poorly documented. The size of the indigenous population of the isthmus at the time of European colonization is uncertain. Estimates range as high as two million people, but more recent studies place that number closer toArchaeological finds and testimonials by early European explorers describe diverse native isthmian groups exhibiting cultural variety and suggesting people developed[ clarification needed ] by regular regional routes of commerce.
When Panama was colonized, the indigenous peoples fled into the forest and nearby islands. Scholars believe that infectious disease was the primary cause of the population decline of American natives.
The indigenous peoples had no acquired immunity to diseases which had been chronic in Eurasian populations for centuries. A year later, Christopher Columbus visited the isthmus, and established a short-lived settlement in the Darien. Gold and silver were brought by ship from South America, hauled across the isthmus, and loaded aboard ships for Spain.
The route became known as the Camino Real, or Royal Road, although it was more commonly known as Camino de Cruces Road of Crosses because of the number of gravesites along the way.
Panama was under Spanish rule for almost years —and became part of the Viceroyalty of Perualong with all other Spanish possessions in South America.
From the outset, Panamanian identity was based on a sense of "geographic destiny", and Panamanian fortunes fluctuated with the geopolitical importance of the isthmus. The colonial experience spawned Panamanian nationalism and a racially complex and highly stratified society, the source of internal conflicts that ran counter to the unifying force of nationalism.
A Real Audiencia was a judicial district that functioned as an appeals court. Each audiencia had an oidor Spanish: Spanish authorities had little control over much of the territory of Panama.
Large sections managed to resist conquest and missionization until very late in the colonial era. Because of this, indigenous people of the area were often referred to as "indios de guerra" war Indians who resisted Spanish attempts to conquer them or missionize them. However, Panama was enormously important to Spain strategically because it was the easiest way to transship silver mined in Peru to Europe.
Silver cargoes were landed at Panama and then taken overland to Portobello or Nombre de Dios on the Caribbean side of the isthmus for further shipment.
One such famous community amounted to a small kingdom under Bayanowhich emerged in the to The end of the encomienda system in Azuerohowever, sparked the conquest of Veraguas in that same year.
In the newly conquered region, the old system of encomienda was imposed. On the other hand, the Panamanian movement for independence can be indirectly attributed to the abolition of the encomienda system in the Azuero Peninsulaset forth by the Spanish Crown, in because of repeated protests by locals against the mistreatment of the native population.
In its stead, a system of medium and smaller-sized landownership was promoted, thus taking away the power from the large landowners and into the hands of medium and small-sized proprietors.
Panama was the site of the ill-fated Darien schemewhich set up a Scottish colony in the region in This failed for a number of reasons, and the ensuing debt contributed to the union of England and Scotland in In the viceroyalty of New Granada northern South America was created in response to other Europeans trying to take Spanish territory in the Caribbean region.
The Isthmus of Panama was placed under its jurisdiction. While the Panama route was short it was also labor-intensive and expensive because of the loading and unloading and laden-down trek required to get from the one coast to the other.
In both Veraguas and the capital this act was met with disdain, although on differing levels.Blog >> Palmar Beach, Panama – Part 2. Call To Get Started Today. 1 Jul Palmar Beach, Panama – Part 2.
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Panama's Membership in International Organizations. Panama and the United States belong to a number of the same international organizations, including the United Nations, Organization of American States, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and World Trade Organization.
Panama and the United States belong to a number of the same international organizations, including the United Nations, Organization of American States, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and World Trade Organization.
This is a partial list of people named in the Panama Papers as shareholders, directors and beneficiaries of offshore companies.
The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) released the full list of companies and individuals in the Panama Papers on 10 May . Last week, we met Bob Adams, a world traveler and businessman now calling Panama home.
Today we discover common misconceptions about the country, the drug trade, real estate market, as well as Bob's advice for would-be retirees or visitors to the county. International Trucks offers a complete lineup of trucks including the HX Series and LT Series.
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